Research in Corpus Linguistics <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>Research in Corpus Linguistics</strong></em> (<em>RiCL</em>, ISSN 2243-4712) is a scholarly peer-reviewed international scientific journal aiming at the publication of contributions which contain empirical analyses of data from different languages and from different theoretical perspectives and frameworks, with the goal of improving our knowledge about the linguistic theoretical background of a language, a language family or any type of cross-linguistic phenomena/constructions/assumptions. <em>RiCL</em> invites original, previously unpublished research articles, reports on corpus development, and book reviews in the field of Corpus Linguistics. The journal also considers the publication of special issues on specific topics, whose edition can be offered to leading scholars in the field.</p> AELINCO (Spanish Association for Corpus Linguistics) en-US Research in Corpus Linguistics 2243-4712 <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Copyright notice</a></p> Current trends in Corpus Linguistics and textual variation <p>Corpus Linguistics has proved of great value as a methodological tool in shedding light on how discourse is constructed in different text types. This opening contribution to the special issue “Corpus-linguistic perspectives on textual variation” provides an account of some of the most common applications of Corpus Linguistics, describes some of the most widely used corpora, and pins down some of the most influential corpus-based research works. In so doing, we contextualise the contributions to this collection of articles. The main aim of this special issue is to showcase cutting-edge research on textual variation based on linguistic corpora, thus illustrating how Corpus Linguistics draws from but also feeds a multiplicity of linguistic branches, such as (Critical) Discourse Analysis, Register Studies, Historical Linguistics, and Dialectology.</p> Jesús Romero-Barranco Paula Rodríguez-Abruñeiras Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 9 2 i xiii 10.32714/ricl.09.02.01 A new approach to (key) keywords analysis: Using frequency, and now also dispersion <p>A widely-used method in corpus-linguistic approaches to discourse analysis, register/text type/genre analysis, and educational/curriculum questions is that of keywords analysis, a simple statistical method aiming to identify words that are key to, i.e. characteristic for, certain discourses, text types, or topic domains. The vast majority of keywords analyses relied on the same statistical measure that most collocation studies are using, the log-likelihood ratio, which is performed on frequencies of occurrence in two corpora under consideration. In a recent paper, Egbert and Biber (2019) advocated a different approach, one that involves computing log-likelihood ratios for word types based on the range of their distribution rather than their frequencies in the target and reference corpora under consideration. In this paper, I argue that their approach is a most welcome addition to keywords analysis but can still be profitably extended by utilizing both frequency and dispersion for keyness computations. I am presenting a new two-dimensional approach to keyness and exemplifying it on the basis of the <em>Clinton-Trump Corpus</em> and the <em>British National Corpu</em>s.</p> <p><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Stefan Th. Gries Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-01-22 2021-01-22 9 2 1 33 10.32714/ricl.09.02.02 How Trump tweets: A comparative analysis of tweets by US politicians <p>This paper analyses tweets sent from Donald Trump’s <em>Twitter</em> account @realDonaldTrump and contextualises them by contrasting them with several genres (i.e. political and ‘average’ <em>Twitter</em>, blogs, expressive writing, novels, <em>The</em> <em>New York Times</em> and natural speech). Taking common claims about Donald Trump’s language as a starting point, the study focusses on commonalities and differences between his tweets and those by other US politicians. Using the sentiment analysis tool <em>Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count</em> (LIWC) and a principal component analysis, I examine a newly compiled 1.5-million-word corpus of tweets sent from US politicians’ accounts between 2009 and 2018 with a special focus on the question whether Trump’s <em>Twitter</em> voice has linguistic features commonly associated with informality, <em>I</em>-talk, negativity and boasting. The results reveal that all political tweets are grammatically comparatively formal and centre around the topics of achievement, money and power. Trump’s tweets stand out, however, because they are both more negative and more positive than the language in other politicians’ tweets, i.e. his Twitter voice relies far more strongly on adjectives and emotional language.</p> Ulrike Schneider Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-01-22 2021-01-22 9 2 34 63 10.32714/ricl.09.02.03 Linguistic democratization in HKE across registers: The effects of prescriptivism <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0in; line-height: 150%;" lang="en-US" align="left"><span lang="EN-US">The second half or the twentieth century witnessed the emergence and expansion of linguistic changes associated to a number of processes related to changes in socio-cultural norms, such as colloquialization, informalization and democratization. This paper focuses on the latter, a phenomenon that has been claimed to be responsible for several ongoing changes in inner-circle varieties of English, but is rather unexplored in outer-circle varieties. The paper explores Hong Kong English and studies two linguistic sets of markers that include items that represent the (old) undemocratic alternative and the (new) democratic option, namely modal <em>must</em> vs. semi-modals <em>have (got) to</em>, <em>need</em> <em>(to)</em> and <em>want</em> <em>to</em>, and epicene pronouns including undemocratic generic <em>he</em>, on the one hand, and democratic singular <em>they</em> and conjoined <em>he</em> <em>or</em> <em>she</em>, on the other. Using the Hong Kong component of the <em>International Corpus of English</em>, and adopting a register approach, the paper reaches conclusions regarding the role played by prescriptivism in the diffusion of democratic items.</span></p> Lucía Loureiro Porto Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-09-08 2021-09-08 9 2 64 89 10.32714/ricl.09.02.04 News values as evaluation. Main naming practices in Violence Against Women news stories in contemporary Spanish newspapers: El País vs. El Mundo (2005-2010) <p>Violence Against Women (VAW) is a very sensitive, and highly ideological, topic in the Spanish society, as well as in Western societies generally. In Spain, media accounts of VAW are very closely related to two quality newspapers, <em>El País</em> and <em>El Mundo</em>, providing a variety of naming practices for VAW, with differing ideological and evaluative implications. In this paper, I compare and contrast these two dailies in their use of the three main naming practices —<em>violencia de género</em> ‘gender-based violence’, <em>violencia doméstica</em> ‘domestic violence’ and <em>violencia machista</em> ‘male violence’— used in VAW news. To do so I resort to the news values approach proposed by Bednarek and Caple (2012, 2014, 2017), which involves paying attention to the combined insights from both Corpus Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis (cf. Baker <em>et al.</em> 2008, Partington <em>et al</em>. 2013).</p> José Santaemilia Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 9 2 90 113 10.32714/ricl.09.02.05 A corpus-based study of abbreviations in early English medical writing <p>The Early Middle English period witnessed the massive borrowing and adoption of the Latin system of abbreviations in England. Mediaeval writers appropriated those symbols that were directly transferable from Latin exemplars, especially suspensions and brevigraphs, while contractions and superior letters were incorporated somewhat later. The existing accounts of abbreviations in handwritten documents are fragmentary as they offer the picture of the literary compositions of the period, which have been traditionally taken as the source of evidence for handbooks on palaeography. In addition to this, most of these accounts are limited to the description of their use and typology in independent witnesses, being in many cases impossible to extrapolate the results beyond the practice of individual scribes. The present paper takes that step beyond individuality and pursues the study of abbreviations from a variationist perspective with the following objectives: a) to analyse the use and distribution of abbreviations in Late Middle English and Early Modern English (1350–1700), and b) to evaluate the relevance of these abbreviations across different text types of medical writing. The data used as source of evidence come from The Málaga Corpus of Early English Scientific Prose, both the Late Middle English and the Early Modern English components (1350–1500 and 1500–1700, respectively).</p> Javier Calle-Martín Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-09-16 2021-09-16 9 2 114 130 10.32714/ricl.09.02.06 A corpus-based study of some aspects of the Notts subdialect <p>Rural dialects are slowly disappearing and giving way to larger, more generalised ways of speaking (Trudgill 2004; Kortmann 2008; Beal 2010; Braber 2015). This paper is concerned with the study of the specific subdialect of Nottinghamshire, known as ‘Notts’ or ‘Nottinghamese’, and aims at describing its linguistic features. For the purpose, a personalised corpus of approximately 26,000 words has been compiled. The corpus consists of oral texts, which have been transcribed, from a TV show set in the area. The analysis is focused on three facets of the dialectal variation surrounding the county of Nottinghamshire, namely relating to the linguistic levels of phonology, morphosyntax and lexis. Several conclusions have been reached, including the /æ/ phoneme as an indicator of a northern dialect, the usage of the velar nasal plus cluster, as well as the pronunciation of continuous forms and past tense irregularities. In terms of lexical analysis, a justification for the evolution of language use in the area is provided.</p> Jake Flatt Laura Esteban-Segura Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-09-24 2021-09-24 9 2 131 151 10.32714/ricl.09.02.07 From the uncertainty of violence to life after abuse: Discursive transitions among female survivors of Intimate Partner Violence in online contexts <p>Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is undoubtedly one of the most worrying concerns in today’s global societies. Due to the many intertwined factors that explain the persistence of this reality among people from all sorts of backgrounds, finding a uniform strategy to cope with this social issue is far from unproblematic. In this study, I contribute to a growing field of research that examines the discourse of female survivors of IPV in online contexts. The main objective is to identify relevant linguistic patterns used by women to represent themselves and their perpetrators in a publicly-available online forum. More specifically, I seek to ascertain the discursive traits that characterise women in an initial stage in contrast to a final stage within an abusive relationship. To this end, I adopt a Corpus-Assisted Discourse Studies approach in a digital corpus of around 136,000 words, which are analysed with the software tool <em>Sketch Engine</em>. Findings show the most salient discursive traits that characterise IPV online discourse. Additionally, and drawing on verb patterns ascertained in the corpus and their semantic categorisation, I also connect linguistic textual evidence to the power imbalances that sustain this social phenomenon.&nbsp;</p> Alfonso Sánchez-Moya Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 9 2 152 178 10.32714/ricl.09.02.08 Review of Gómez-Jiménez, Eva María and Michael Toolan eds. 2020. The Discursive Construction of Economic Inequality: CADS Approaches to the British Media. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN: 978-1-350-11128-8. Miriam Criado-Peña Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 9 2 179 184 10.32714/ricl.09.02.09 Review of Núñez-Pertejo, Paloma, María José López-Couso, Belén Méndez-Naya and Javier Pérez-Guerra eds. 2019. Crossing Linguistic Boundaries: Systemic, Synchronic and Diachronic Variation in English. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN: 978-1-350-05385-4. Graeme Trousdale Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 9 2 185 190 10.32714/ricl.09.02.10 Review of Hickey, Raymond and Carolina P. Amador-Moreno eds. 2020. Irish Identities: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN: 978-1-501-51610-8. Fiona Farr Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 9 2 191 200 10.32714/ricl.09.02.11 Review of Blanco, Marta, Hella Olbertz and Victoria Vázquez Rozas eds. 2019. Corpus y Construcciones: Perspectivas Hispánicas. (Verba: Anexo 79). Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. ISBN: 978-8-417-59587-6. Miriam Thegel Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 9 2 201 210 10.32714/ricl.09.02.12 Review of Fuster-Márquez, Miguel, José Santaemilia, Carmen Gregori-Signes and Paula Rodríguez-Abruñeiras eds. Exploring Discourse and Ideology through Corpora. Bern: Peter Lang. ISBN: 978-3-034-34236-0. DOI: Carmen Maíz-Arévalo Copyright (c) 2021 Research in Corpus Linguistics 2021-11-08 2021-11-08 9 2 211 218 10.32714/ricl.09.02.13