The Toledo Teacher Trainees corpus (TTT): Bridging the gap between students’ narratives and corpus linguistics

Keywords: narrative inquiry, L2 learning narratives, corpus linguistics, teacher trainees, corpus-based perceptions


In recent decades a few research methods have resorted to L2 learners in order to analyse several aspects aiming at methodological improvements. One of them is corpus linguistics, which has largely contributed to the study of language production from a quantitative perspective. A very different one has been the compilation of perceptions of the L2 learning process using ‘narrative inquiry’ and qualitative methods of analysis. However, scholars have not addressed the combination of both methods. In this proposal we examine their main individual features and offer an interwoven line of research, applying the quantitative approach of corpus linguistics to the genre of language learning narratives. Thus, we present a new corpus of L2 learners’ perceptions and provide detailed information on its structure, compilation and categorisation. The interdisciplinary status of this proposal will enable the exploration of new research possibilities that can ultimately benefit the teaching-learning process.


Download data is not yet available.


Anthony, Laurence. 2019. AntConc. Tokyo: Waseda University.

Aijmer, Karin. 2002. Modality in advanced Swedish learners’ written interlanguage. In Sylviane Granger, Joseph Hung and Stephanie Petch-Tyson eds. Computer Learner Corpora, Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Teaching. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 55–76.

Atkinson, Paul and Sara Delamont. 2006. Rescuing narrative from qualitative research. Narrative Inquiry 16/1: 164–172.

Baker, Susan C. and Peter D. MacIntyre. 2000. The role of gender and immersion in communication and second language orientations. Language Learning 50/2: 311–341.

Barkhuizen, Gary, Phil Benson and Alice Chik. 2014. Narrative Inquiry in Language Teaching and Learning Research. New York: Routledge.

Benson, Phil, Gary Barkhuizen, Peter Bodycott and Jill Brown. 2013. Second Language Identity in Narratives of Study Abroad. Basingstoke: Springer.

Botley, Simon, Faizal Hakim and Doreen Dillah. 2007. Investigating spelling errors in a Malaysian learner corpus. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research 3/1: 74–93.

Chen, Hsin-I. 2010. Contrastive learner corpus analysis of epistemic modality and interlanguage pragmatic competence in L2 writing. Arizona Working Papers in SLA and Teaching 17/1: 27–51.

Clandinin, D. Jean ed. 2007. Handbook of Narrative Inquiry: Mapping a Methodology. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Clandinin, D. Jean and F. Michael Connelly. 2000. Narrative Inquiry: Experience and Story in Qualitative Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Craig, Cheryl. 2011. Narrative inquiry in teaching and teacher education. Narrative Inquiries into Curriculum Making in Teacher Education 13: 19–42.

Divsar, Hoda and Robab Heydari. 2017. A corpus-based study of EFL learners’ errors in IELTS essay writing. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature 6/3: 143–149.

Early, Margaret and Bonny Norton. 2012. Language learner stories and imagined identities. Narrative Inquiry 22/1: 194–201.

Farahani, Ali Akbar Khomeijani, Abbas Ali Rezaee and Robabeh Moshtaghi Zonouz. 2019. Motivational trajectories in language learning: Evidence from highly-motivated English as a foreign language learners. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 16/2: 281–299.

Franco, Ashleigh. 2020. Not all Finns think alike: Varying views of assessment in Finland. International Education Studies. 13/1: 1–10.

Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana, Lynne Flowerdew and Guy Aston. 2011. New Trends in Corpora and Language Learning. London: Continuum.

Geeraerts, Dirk, Stefan Grondelaers and Peter Bakema. 1994. The Structure of Lexical Variation: Meaning, Naming and Context. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Granger, Sylviane. 2002. A bird’s-eye view of learner corpus research. In Sylviane Granger, Joseph Hung and Stephanie Petch-Tyson eds. Computer Learner Corpora, Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Teaching. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 3–33.

Granger, Sylviane, Estelle Dagneaux, Fanny Meunier and Magali Paquot. 2009. International Corpus of Learner English. Louvain-la-Neuve: Presses Universitaires de Louvain.

Housen, Alex. 2002. A corpus-based study of the L2 acquisition of the English verb system. In Sylviane Granger, Joseph Hung and Stephanie Petch-Tyson eds. Computer Learner Corpora, Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Teaching. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 77–116.

Huber, Janice, Vera Caine, Marilyn Huber and Pam Steeves. 2013. Narrative inquiry as pedagogy in education: The extraordinary potential of living, telling, retelling and reliving stories of experience. Review of Research in Education 37/1: 212–242.

Izumi, Emi, Kiyotaka Uchimoto and Hitoshi Isahara. 2004. Nihonjin 1,200-nin no Eigo Speaking Corpus (A speaking corpus of 1,200 Japanese learners of English). Tokyo: ALC Press.

Johnson, Karen E. and Paula R. Golombek. 2002. Teachers’ Narrative Inquiry as Professional Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kitchen, Julian, Darlene Ciuffetelli Parker and Debbie Pushor eds. 2011. Narrative Inquiries into Curriculum Making in Teacher Education. Bingley: Emerald.

Kittay, Eva Feder and Adrienne Lehrer. 2012. Introduction. In Adrienne Lehrer, Eva Feder Kittay and Richard Lehrer eds. Frames, Fields and Contrasts: New Essays in Semantic and Lexical Organization. New York and London: Routledge.

Laufer, Batia and Tina Waldman. 2011. Verb-noun collocations in Second Language writing: A corpus analysis of learners’ English. Language Learning 6/2: 647–672.

Mackey, William F. 1965. Language Teaching Analysis. London: Longman and Indiana University Press.

Marshall, Catherine and Gretchen B. Rossman. 2014. Designing Qualitative Research. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Nicholls, Diane. 2003. The Cambridge Learner Corpus– error coding and analysis for lexicography and ELT. In Dawn Archer, Paul Rayson, Andrew Wilson and Tony McEnery eds. Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics 2003 Conference. Lancaster University: University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, 572–581.

Ortega, Lourdes. 2009. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. London: Hodder Education.

Oxford, Rebecca L. 2001. The bleached bones of a story: Learners’ constructions of language teachers. In Michael P. Breen ed. Learner Contributions to Language Learning: New Direction in Research. London: Longman, 86–111.

Paquot, Magali and Luke Plonsky. 2017. Quantitative research methods and study quality in learner corpus research. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research 3: 61–94.

Pavlenko, Aneta. 2007. Autobiographic narratives as data in applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics 28/2: 163–188.

Polat, Brittany. 2011. Investigating acquisition of discourse markers through a developmental learner corpus. Journal of Pragmatics 43/15: 3745–3756.

Rajendram, Shakina, Jeanne Sinclair and Elizabeth Larson. 2019. International graduate students’ perspectives on high-stakes English tests and the language demands of Higher Education. Language and Literacy 21/4: 68–92.

Reis, Davi Schirmer. 2011. “I’m not alone:” Empowering non-native English-speaking teachers to challenge the native speaker myth. In Karen E. Johnson and Paula R. Golombek eds. Research on Second Language Teacher Education. New York: Routledge, 45–63.

Reppen, Randi. 2010. Using Corpora in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Riessman, Catherine Kohler. 2008. Narrative Methods for the Human Sciences. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Römer, Ute. 2011. Corpus research applications in Second Language teaching. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 31/1: 205–225.

Simon-Vandenbergen, Anne-Marie and Karin Aijmer. 2008. The Semantic Field of Modal Certainty: A Corpus-Based Study of English Adverbs. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Sinclair, Jeanne, Elizabeth Jean Larson and Shakina Rajendram. 2019. “Be a machine:” International graduate students’ narratives around high-stakes English tests. Language Assessment Quarterly 16/2: 236–252.

Thompson, Amy S. and Camilla Vásquez. 2015. Exploring motivational profiles through language learning narratives. The Modern Language Journal 99/1: 158–174.

Vyatkina, Nina. 2013. Specific syntactic complexity: Developmental profiling of individuals based on an annotated learner corpus. The Modern Language Journal 97/1: 11–30.

Wells, Kathleen. 2011. Narrative Inquiry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yang, Huizhong and Naixing Wei. 2005. The Construction of and Research on the COLSEC. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

How to Cite
Faya-Cerqueiro, F., & Alcaraz Mármol, G. (2020). The Toledo Teacher Trainees corpus (TTT): Bridging the gap between students’ narratives and corpus linguistics . Research in Corpus Linguistics, 8(1), 164-177.