Evaluative stance in Vietnamese and English writing by the same authors: A corpus-informed appraisal study
Appraisal theory (Martin and White 2005), an approach to discourse analysis dealing with evaluative language, has been previously employed in analysing newspaper articles and spoken discourses in several earlier studies, although it is gaining in popularity as a framework for comparing first and second (L1/L2) writing. This study investigated 40 English majors’ Vietnamese and English paragraphs for evaluative language, a key component of successful academic writing, as realised under Appraisal theory. To this purpose, we collected L1 Vietnamese and L2 English data from the same student writers across the same topics and using a corpus-informed Contrastive Interlanguage Analysis approach to the annotation and analysis of appraisal. A range of commonalities were present in the use of appraisal across the two language varieties, while the results also suggest significant differences between students’ evaluative expressions in Vietnamese as a mother tongue and English as a second or foreign language. This variation includes the comparative under- and over-use of specific appraisal resources employed in L1 and L2 writing respectively, in particular, regarding writers’ employment of attitudinal features. The findings serve to inform future pedagogical applications regarding explicit instruction in stance and appraisal features for novice L2 English writers in Vietnam.
Bailey, Stephen. 2006. Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students. Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Beare, Sophie and Johanne Bourdages. 2007. Skilled writers’ generating strategies in L1 and L2: An exploratory study. In Mark Torrance, Luuk van Waes and David Galbraith eds. Writing and Cognition: Research and Applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 151–161.
Biber, Douglas and Edward Finegan. 1989. Styles of stance in English: Lexical and grammatical marking of evidentiality and affect. Text 9/1: 93–124.
Bley-Vroman, Robert. 1983. The comparative fallacy in interlanguage studies: The case of systematicity. Language Learning 33: 1–17.
Chafe, Wallace L. and Johanna Nichols eds. 1986. Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Chung, Thuy T. 2018. Discovering interpersonal stance in EFL Students’ writing. Paper presented at the 14th Annual Cam TESOL Conference on English Language Teaching, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 10–11 February 2018.
Coffin, Caroline and Ann Hewings. 2004. IELTS as preparation for tertiary writing: Distinctive interpersonal and textual strategies. In Louise J. Ravelli and Robert A. Ellis eds. Analysing Academic Writing: Contextualised Frameworks. London: Continuum, 153–171.
Derewianka, Beverly. 2007. Using appraisal theory to track interpersonal development in adolescent academic writing. In Anne McCabe, Mick O’Donnell and Rachel Whittaker eds., 142–165.
Geng, Yifan and Sue Wharton. 2016. Evaluative language in discussion sections of doctoral theses: Similarities and differences between L1 Chinese and L1 English writers. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 22: 80–91.
Goffman, Erving. 1981. Forms of Talk. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Granger, Sylviane. 1996. From CA to CIA and back: An integrated approach to computerized bilingual and learner corpora. In Karin Aijmer, Bengt Altenberg and Mats Johansson eds. Languages in Contrast. Papers from a Symposium on Text-Based Cross-Linguistic Studies. Lund: Lund University Press, 37–51.
Granger, Sylviane. 2015. Contrastive interlanguage analysis: A reappraisal. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research 1/1: 7–24.
Ho, Vu L. 2011. Non-native Argumentative Writing by Vietnamese Learners of English: A Contrastive Study. Washington, DC: The Georgetown University dissertation.
Hood, Susan. 2004. Managing attitude in undergraduate academic writing: A focus on the introductions to research reports. In Louise J. Ravelli and Robert A. Ellis eds. Analysing Academic Writing: Contextualized Frameworks. London: Continuum, 24–44.
Hood, Susan. 2006. The persuasive power of prosodies: Radiating values in academic writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5/1: 37–49.
Hunston, Susan and Geoff Thompson. 2000. Evaluation: An introduction. In Susan Hunston and Geoff Thompson eds. Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1–27.
Hyland, Ken. 2005. Stance and engagement: A model of interaction in academic discourse. Discourse Studies 7/2: 173–192.
Koo, Terry. K. and Mae Y. Li. 2016. A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine 15/2: 155–163.
Labov, William. 1984. Intensity. In Deborah Schiffrin ed. Meaning, Form, and Use in Context: Linguistic Applications. Washington: University of Georgetown Press, 43–70.
Lam, Suet L. and Peter Crosthwaite. 2018. Appraisal resources in L1 and L2 argumentative essays: A contrastive learner corpus-informed study of evaluative stance. Journal of Corpora and Discourse Studies 1/1: 8–35.
Lancaster, Zac. 2011. Interpersonal stance in L1 and L2 students’ argumentative writing in economics: Implications for faculty development in WAC/WID programs. Across the Disciplines 8/4: 1–23.
Martin, James R. and Peter R. R. White. 2005. The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
McCabe, Anne, Mick O’Donnell and Rachel Whittaker eds. 2007. Advances in Language and Education. London: Continuum.
McEnery, Tony and Andrew Hardie. 2012. Corpus Linguistics: Method, Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ngo, Thu and Len Unsworth. 2015. Reworking the appraisal framework in ESL research: Refining attitude resources. Functional Linguistics 2/1: 1–24.
Ochs, Elinor. 1989. Introduction. Text – Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse 9/1: 1–5.
O’Donnell, Mick. 2016. UAM CorpusTool 3.3. http://corpustool.com/download.html (8 August, 2018.)
Phan, Ha L. 2011. The writing and culture nexus: Writers’ comparisons of Vietnamese and English academic writing. In Ha L. Phan and Bradley Baurain eds. Voices, Identities, Negotiations and Conflicts: Writing Academic English across Cultures. Bingley: Emerald, 23–40.
Sasaki, Miyuki. 2002. Building an empirically-based model of EFL learners’ writing processes. In Gert Rijlaarsdam, Sarah Ransdell and Marie-Laure Barbier eds. New Directions for Research in L2 Writing. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 49–78.
Simpson, Paul. 1993. Language, Ideology and Point of View. London: Routledge.
Swain, Elizabeth. 2007. Constructing an effective ‘voice’ in academic discussion writing: An appraisal theory perspective. In Anne McCabe, Mick O’Donnell and Rachel Whittaker eds., 166–184.
Tran, Van T. H. 2011. A Linguistic Study on Social Attitudes toward the Quality Issues of Postgraduate Education in Vietnam. Wollongong, NSW: The University of Wollongong dissertation.
Vo, Duc D. 2011. Styles, Structure and Ideology in English and Vietnamese Business Hard News Reporting – A Comparative Study. Adelaide, SA: The University of Adelaide dissertation.
Vo, Trang N. T. 2017. Linguistic expression of judgment and appreciation in English and Vietnamese newspaper articles of social issues. Paper presented at the 3rd National Conference on Interdisciplinary Research in Linguistics and Language Education, Hue, Vietnam, 22 November 2017.
Copyright (c) 2022 Research in Corpus Linguistics
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.